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Unlocking the Mystery: Why Do Minor Scales Have 7 Notes?

Updated: May 21

In the complex and fascinating world of music theory, understanding how to build scales stands out as a fundamental pillar. For both novice and veteran musicians, a deep understanding of the intricacies behind musical scales will absolutely increase appreciation and competency in music. The major scale's note structure is commonly understood as consisting of two tetrachords. The first tetrachord follows a sequence of whole step, whole step, half step, while the second tetrachord follows a sequence of whole step, whole step, whole step, half step. Its counterpart, the minor scale, however, often raises questions amongst aspiring musicians. How come it also consists of seven notes? In this post, we will dive into a harmonic exploration as we examine the reasoning between the seven-note structure of major scales.

Kyla, a music teacher based in Toronto, performing on her synthesizer.

The Foundation: Musical Scales

The concept of scales is quintessential to music theory and serve as the building blocks for melodies and harmonies. Scales can be defined as a sequence of notes, arranged in a deliberate and specific way, that span one octave and provide the framework for compositions, improvisation and more. Scales also serve as a great way for musicians to practice their technique. There are many types of scales, with the most common being the Major Scale and the Minor Scale.


The Major Scale: A Familiar Foundation

Before discussing into the complexities of minor scales, we will start by briefly summarizing the major scale. The major scale, characterized by its happy sound, is cornerstone of Western music. Consisting of seven notes arranged deliberately in a specific pattern of intervals commonly named whole steps & half steps. The major scale produces a familiar sound that can be heard in countless pieces of music spanning multiple genres.


Deciphering the Minor Scale

In contrast to its counterpart, the major scale, the minor scale's tonal characteristic can be described as sad and somber. While they sound quite different, both scales are made up of a series of 7 notes which span one octave. Let's examine why even despite their different sound, they have this characteristic in common.


The Do Re Mi Connection

In order to best comprehend the seven-note structure of minor scales, we first need to examine the origins of the diatonic scale, otherwise known as the do re mi scale. The do re mi scale is rooted in ancient music tradition and is the foundation for Western musical notation that we know and use today. This scale consists of, you guessed it, seven distinct notes—do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti. These notes are arranged in a specific sequence using both whole steps and half steps. Those who have seen the popular movie, The Sound Of Music, will have heard a great song using this song. You can listen to it by clicking here.

The Sound of Music is a great film that uses a song that showcases the do-re-mi scale.
Do-Re-Mi from the Sound Of Music.

Diatonic Harmony: The Key to Understanding

The relationship between the notes within a scale in a focal point in diatonic harmony. In both major and minor scales, this relationship follows a predetermined pattern of intervals. The major scale follows a specific arrangement of whole and half steps, but the minor scale introduces variations that imbue it with its unique character.


Exploring Minor Scale Variants

In the world of minor scales, two primary variations exist: the natural minor scale and the harmonic minor scale. The natural minor scale, commonly referred to as just the "minor scale", closely resembles the do re mi scale. It maintains the same sequence of intervals with a flattened third, sixth, and seventh degree. When we say "flattened", we are referring to lowering the note by a semitone. The harmonic minor scale incorporates a raised seventh degree, giving it an interesting flair which can sometimes be described as a Middle Eastern sound.


The Seven-Note Conundrum

Now that we are aware of both the natural and harmonic minor scales, the question remains: why do both variants consist of seven notes? The answer lies in the principles of harmony and tonality. The major scale's seven-note structure facilitates harmonic coherence and melodic expression, the minor scale's composition serves a similar purpose.


Harmonic Completeness

At its core, the seven-note format of minor scales allows for harmonic completeness and tonal stability within any given key. By using a large range of pitches and intervals, minor scales offer composers and musicians a a wide spread of melodic and harmonic possibilities. This inherent versatility allows for the creation of wonderful melodies, expressive chord progressions, and beautiful musical compositions and improvisation.


Conclusion: Unlocking Musical Mysteries

In the world of music theory, the seven-note format of minor scales is a testament to the inner beauty and intricacy of musical harmony. Whether you're just getting started on your musical journey or looking to to deepen your knowledge and understanding of melodic and harmonic intricacies, exploring the rationale behind minor scales offers valuable insights into the art of composition, improvisation and performance.


Elevate Your Musical Journey

Looking to dive deeper into the world of music theory and performance? Our team of top music teachers at Greater Toronto Music School offers comprehensive music lessons online and in-person tailored to your unique goals and aspirations. Whether you're passionate about mastering the intricacies of minor scales or refining your technique on your instrument of choice, our personalized approach ensures a rewarding and enriching musical journey. Click here to enroll today!


Connect with a Toronto Music Teacher Today

Experience the power of music firsthand with Greater Toronto Music School. Our highly qualified music teachers are committed to coaching students of all ages and skill levels to reach their full musical potential. Schedule your introductory music lessons today and dive into a musical adventure unlike any other.

Vladimir is a top Toronto music teacher who works for Greater Toronto Music School.
Valdimir is a top Toronto music teacher.

Further Exploration of Musical Scales

While the idea of musical scales is frequently associated with Western music, it's important to understand that many cultures across the globe have created their own unique systems of musical scales. From the pentatonic scales of East Asian traditions to the microtonal scales of Middle Eastern and Indian music, the wide array of musical scales mirrors the rich tapestry of human creativity and expression.


In addition to their fundamental role in melody and harmony, scales also play an important part in improvisation and composition. Musicians frequently apply scales as the foundation for crafting solos, melodies, and chord progressions, allowing for spontaneous creativity within a structured framework. Through practice and musical exploration, musicians can achieve fluency in navigating different scales and modes, resulting in expansion their musical vocabulary and artistic versatility.

The Influence of Technology on Scales

We are now in the digital age where technological advancements have and continue to revolutionize the way we interact with music. Digital audio workstations (DAWs), such as ProTools, Logic Pro or Cubase, and software synthesizers allow musicians to create and play with new sounds and textures, expanding the boundaries of traditional scale structures. From experimental microtonal compositions to algorithmic music generation, technology has birthed many new possibilities for musical creation and innovation.

The Future of Scales in Music

Music is an ever-evolving art form that changes with cultural landscapes. As music continues to evolve, the role of scales in musical expression will certainly keep evolving as well. Whether through traditional acoustic instruments or cutting-edge electronic music production, scales continue to be a fundamental tool for creating and conveying musical ideas. By embracing the diversity of scales and exploring their endless potential, musicians can keep on pushing the limits of creativity and innovation in the world of music.

By diving into into the nuanced intricacies of musical scales and harmony, musicians not only enhance their musical skills but also gain a deeper appreciation for the art form that knows no boundaries and speaks to the soul. Unlock the mysteries of minor scales and get started on an exciting journey of self-discovery through the transformative power of music.


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